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3D Printing

3D printing or additive manufacturing is the construction of a three-dimensional object from a CAD model or a digital 3D model. It can be done in a variety of processes in which material is deposited, joined or solidified under computer control, with material being added together (such as plastics, liquids or powder grains being fused), typically layer by layer.

In the 1980s, 3D printing techniques were considered suitable only for the production of functional or aesthetic prototypes, and a more appropriate term for it at the time was rapid prototyping. As of 2019, the precision, repeatability, and material range of 3D printing have increased to the point that some 3D printing processes are considered viable as an industrial-production technology, whereby the term additive manufacturing can be used synonymously with 3D printing. One of the key advantages of 3D printing is the ability to produce very complex shapes or geometries that would be otherwise impossible to construct by hand, including hollow parts or parts with internal truss structures to reduce weight. Fused deposition modeling (FDM ), which uses a continuous filament of a thermoplastic material, is the most common 3D printing process in use as of 2020.

Reference: The Economist Newspaper. (n.d.). 3D printing scales up. The Economist. Retrieved November 2, 2022, from

Advanced Process Control Systems - APC

Advanced process control (APC) refers to a broad range of techniques and technologies implemented within industrial process control systems. Advanced process controls are usually deployed optionally and in addition to basic process controls. Basic process controls are designed and built with the process itself, to facilitate basic operation, control, and automation requirements. Advanced process controls are typically added subsequently, often over the course of many years, to address performance or economic improvement opportunities in the process.

There is a wide range of control systems that include and not limited to: a distributed control system (DCS)programmable logic controller (PLC), and/or a supervisory control computer, Advanced regulatory control (ARC), Model Predictive Control, Multivariable Model predictive control (MPC) , Nonlinear MPC, Inferential Measurements, Intelligent control

Reference: Scribd. (n.d.). Final-paper15 straegy analysis. Scribd. Retrieved November 3, 2022, from

AI - Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence is an umbrella term that covers several different technologies, like machine learning, computer vision, natural language processing, deep learning, and more. At their core, though, all these technologies help machines perform specific cognitive tasks as well as or better than humans.

Artificial Intelligence can be applied across all business functions. in Sales: Artificial intelligence (AI) helps companies boost lead volume, close rate, and overall sales performance. that’s because this technology can automate and augment much of the sales process. As a result, salespeople are free to focus on what matters: revenue.

Reference: Kaput, M. (2022, July 27). AI for sales: What you need to know. Marketing AI Institute. Retrieved November 3, 2022, from

AI - Expert recommendations

Beyond prediction and prioritization, some AI systems may recommend actions, going so far as to tell teams which actions the system thinks make the most sense, based on your goals and insights from the data. These recommendations may include advice on how to price a deal, who to target next, or which customers to target first with upsells or cross-sells, machining and process parameters, core supply chain decisions. “Expert System is an interactive and reliable computer-based decision-making system which uses both facts and heuristics to solve complex decision-making problems. It is considered at the highest level of human intelligence and expertise. The purpose of an expert system is to solve the most complex issues in a specific domain.

Reference: Johnson, D. (2022, September 17). What is expert system in AI (Artificial Intelligence)? with example. Guru99. Retrieved November 3, 2022, from

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